This blog contains in detail about what is Congenital Cardiac Disease?, types, their symptoms, and treatment types and Congenital Cardiac Surgery in Hyderabad
What is Congenital Cardiac Disease?
Congenital heart diseases are heart defects that babies are born with. Heart defects are the most common type of birth defect problems. Most of the congenital heart problems are seen in the walls of the heart, valves, or blood vessels.
Though some of them can be left untreated, most of the time they can lead to serious health issues in the future and need to be treated. Several surgeries and treatments are available for treating the anomalies in both newborn babies and adults who grew up with them.
Types of congenital heart disease:
1. Septal Defect:
Also known as a hole in the heart. It is a hole in the wall or the septum of the heart that separates the left from the right side. The hole leads to the mixing up of blood on the two sides of the heart and therefore needs to be fixed. Some holes close on their own while some need to be treated by a cardiothoracic surgeon.
Open heart surgery is needed to repair a medium or large-sized hole while minimally invasive procedures can be used to seal a smaller hole.
Septal defects can be one of the below:
- Atrial Septal Defect (ASD): An Atrial septal defect is a hole in the atrial wall between the upper chambers, or the right and left atria, of the heart. A hole here lets blood from left atrium mix with blood in the right atrium.
- Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD): A VSD is a hole in the part of the heart septum that separates the lower chambers called the ventricles. VSD reverses the blood that needs to be pumped to the body and pumps it back into the lungs.
- Complete Atrioventricular Canal Defect (CAVC): A CAVC affects all four chambers of the heart and is a serious defect that prevents oxygen-rich blood from going to the intended organs in the body. It might need more than one surgery to repair the CAVC defects.
2. Valve Defects
Valves are flap-like structures in the heart’s ventricles and arteries that control the flow of blood in a specific direction. Heart valve defects can involve:
- Stenosis: When valves become stiff and narrow and become very difficult for the blood to flow easily as the stiffness constricts the passage.
- Regurgitation: The valve does not close tightly allowing the blood to leak backward through them.
- Atresia: It is a very complicated heart problem when the valve isn’t formed right and does not have an opening to let the blood pass through.
- Ebstein’s anomaly: This is a defect in the tricuspid heart valve keeping it from closing tightly often leading to an atrial septal defect (ASD).
- Pulmonary valve stenosis: A very commonly seen abnormality in newborn babies with some cases also having strained right ventricles along with the strained valves. These are usually treated with the help of a balloon-like end of the catheter to inflate and stretch open the strained valve.
3. Tetralogy of Fallot
Tetralogy of Fallot is a rare disease which is a combination of four defects, including a ventricular septal defect (VSD), pulmonary valve stenosis, a misplaced aorta and a thickened right ventricular wall (right ventricular hypertrophy):
4. Other Defects
There are other defects including:
- Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA): a hole in the aorta
- Truncus arteriosus: Newborns with only one major artery instead of two. Arteries carry blood to the rest of the body, therefore, surgery is needed immediately to repair the defect in the infant
- I-transposition of the great arteries: The right and left chambers of the baby’s heart are reversed.
- D-transposition of the great arteries: The two main arteries of the newly born baby’s heart are reversed.
- Single ventricle defects: Babies born with a small lower chamber of the heart, or with one valve missing.
Symptoms of Congenital Heart Diseases in Infants
Most congenital heart defects become evident soon after the birth of a child or during the baby’s initial few months of life. Symptoms of Congenital Heart Disease in newborns are:
- Pale gray or blue skin color also called as cyanosis
- Fast and rapid breathing
- Swelling in the legs and abdomen
- Swollen areas around eyes
- Shortness of breath during feedings, leading to poor weight gain
Few congenital heart defects may not be diagnosed until later in childhood as there might not be any noticeable signs or symptoms.
Some evident symptoms may include:
- Shortness of breath especially during exercise or activity
- Fatigue or easily getting tired during exercise or activity
- Dizziness or Fainting during physical activities
- Swelling in the hands, ankles or feet
Congenital Cardiac Surgery and Treatments
No matter what type of congenital heart defect or how sooner or later the symptoms are diagnosed, with the current advancements in technology, tools, and treatments, there is a far greater chance of a successful treatment leading to a long, normal lifestyle for the patients.
Congenital Cardiac Surgery in Hyderabad
Dr. PV Naresh is an experienced cardiothoracic surgeon in Hyderabad, Telangana who has a reputable team and has performed Congenital Cardiac Surgery in Hyderabad, and different kinds of surgery for different congenital heart defects. For all the congenital cardiac disease treatments from a very simple ASD closure to the most complex Arterial Switch Operation, Dr. Naresh and his very capable team have proven to be very successful and dependable in the twin cities and India.
Using mostly minimally invasive surgeries wherever necessary they have been correcting the congenital cardiac diseases in a variety of patients ranging from newborn infants to older patients.
Some of the corrections that they are very renowned for include:
- Tetrology of Fallot Corrections
- DORV Repairs
- VSD Closures
- AV canal Repairs
- Paediatric Mital
- Aortic Valve Reconstructions and Repairs
- Abstains Anamoly Tricuspid Valve Reconstruction
- Coarctation Of Aorta Repairs
- LV Myectomies
- BT Shunts
- TAPVC Repair
- PAPVC Repairs
For more information please contact Dr. PV Naresh to talk in detail about the congenital cardiac diseases, its effects, and treatment options.